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Phenetics of natural populations V: Genetic correlates of phenotypic variation in the pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) in California.

abstract1 (full description below): J. Heredity 87:341-350.
Genetic correlates of phenotypic variation. PDF/Acrobat file  

A comparison of electrophoretic and cranial (osteometric) variation in adult male and female pocket gophers (Thomomys born) confirms the existence of a genetic-phenetic variation correlation (GPVC)-a correlation of genetic variation and morphological variation over a set of natural populations. In males, characters correlated with body size give the highest GPVCs; in females, the characters with the highest GPVCs tend to be poorly correlated with body size. Genetic variation, as measured by variation in allozymes, explains up to half of the heterogeneity among populations in levels of morphological variation for some characters in females; in males about 80% of the heterogeneity of phenotypic variation is explained by allozyme heterozygosity. There is no evidence for a correlation between individual heterozygosity and growth rate or body size for individuals within a population. The simplest way to explain these results is to assume that estimates of heterozygosity based on protein variation are correlated with the amount of additive genetic variation in populations. DNA fingerprint (heterogeneity of minisatellite regions) data from six populations are consistent with the electrophoretic and morphological results, although there is evidence that fingerprint heterogeneity in populations does not increase linearly with allozyme heterozygosity or morphological variability.